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Journal of Serviceology

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Vol.1, No.1

Invited paper

Innovation in Service Ecosystems

Stephen L. Vargo, Heiko Wieland and Melissa Archpru Akaka

Vol.1, No.1, pp.1-5, 2016

ABSTRACT: We apply service-dominant (S-D) logic and its service-ecosystems perspective as a means for reconceptualizing innovation taking a broader and deeper perspective. More specifically, we argue that a service-ecosystems perspective enables researchers and managers to consider the interactions among a full range of actors and processes involved in value creation. This systemic perspective helps to shed light on the processes and practices that are foundational to the formation and re-formation of technologies and markets. Importantly, a service-ecosystems view broadens the scope of innovation to include the social structures (i.e., institutions) that guide and are guided by the actions and interactions among multiple actors.

Keywords: Innovation; Market Formation; Ecosystems; Institutions

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Original paper

FNS Model of Service as Value Co-creation in Design Processes

Hideyuki Nakashima, Haruyuki Fujii and Masaki Suwa

Vol.1, No.1, pp.6-14, 2016

ABSTRACT: We formalize a design process as a synthesis. One important phase of the process is utilization of the designed object, either it is concrete or abstract. This phase is a service provision. We define "X service" as a provision and utilization of X, where X is something or some system. Value co-creation by the provider and the user through use has been discussed in the society of Serviceology. We claim that the concept of co-creation also applies to design. We have been working on formalizing the process of design and synthesis, or constructive science, as FNS diagram. It is an infinite loop of generation, interaction (of the system) with the environment, analysis and scripting (and then back to generation). This loop is infinite in the sense that to design is never ending activity of making and improving a certain type of artifacts recursively towards a preferable situation even though each artifact has its lifetime. Service in its narrow sense corresponds to generation and interaction phase where a generated system is actually put into use. Service in its wider sense corresponds to the whole loop. When we take the definition of "design" to its widest meaning, service becomes an important part of a design process. Provision and utilization of designed system forms a twin FNS loops, one for the provider and the other for the user. Information technology (IT) plays an important role when we design an innovative service system. As an example, we report our design and implementation of Smart Access Vehicle System in Hakodate.

Keywords: Design, FNS-diagram, constructive methodology, value co-creation, serviceology

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Vol.2, No.1

Original paper

Prototype Verification for Co-creation of an Experiential Value Platform for E-learning Skill-Based Education Service

Satoshi Suzuki, Masato Anakubo and Yasue Mitsukura

Vol.2, No.1, pp.1-11, 2017

ABSTRACT: E-learning is an effective e-business approach; however, it does not perform well for skill-based education involving body motion and implicit knowledge, typically neglecting experiential value which has a strong relationship with changes in the psychological status of the receiver and provider. The current study introduces a platform for co-creation of experiential value (CcEV) and a proposed prototype app named e-training analyzer. A pseudo e-learning experiment was conducted using the app to test the CcEV concept. We utilized a teaching-timing assistance (TT-assist) method, because suitable teaching-timing corresponds to changes in learners' short-term experience value during practice. Moreover, an algorithm for objectively estimating the users' feeling-of-satisfaction from the brain wave measurement was implemented in the app. Using three evaluation methods, we confirmed that the TT-assist method was able to enhance learners' skill level as effectively as normal teaching (Welch's t test : t(38.28) = 0.04, p = 0.03). In addition, TT-assist significantly enhanced learners' subjective feeling-of-satisfaction (t(20) = 3.86, p < .001, d = 0.66), and maintained learners' objectively estimated feeling-of-satisfaction. Taken together, the results suggest that the prototype CcEV platform was effective for overcoming the difficulties of e-learning for skill-based education.

Keywords: Skill education service, E-learning, Experiential value, Co-creation, Feeling-of-satisfaction

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Vol.3, No.1

Original paper

Consumer service innovation in a circular economy – the customer value perspective

Maria Antikainen, Minna Lammi and Taru Hakanen

Vol.3, No.1, pp.1-8, 2018

ABSTRACT: We are already overusing non-renewable resources and exceeding the environmental capacity of our planet and consumption is constantly growing. There is an alarming need to replace the current linear economic model with a more sustainable and preserving model called the Circular Economy (CE). The idea of the CE is to keep products and materials in use as long as possible, preserving or even increasing their value. The transition towards a CE requires a fundamental redesign of business models and end-to-end value chains. Instead of selling products, companies should move to retain ownership and sell their use as a service, allowing them to optimize the use of resources. Thus, buying for a service creates value differently for consumers than buying and owning a product. Therefore, there is a need to understand how CE-based services create value for consumers. In this study, customer value is perceived as a trade-off between the benefits and sacrifices that a consumer perceives when purchasing a product or a service. Our data is derived from consumer group interviews that took place in February 2016 in Finland. In the group interviews we introduced potential CE services to consumers. The data show that consumers are gaining practical, economic and personal benefits from three potential CE rental services: a sofa, a washing machine and clothing. Moreover, the study revealed that the benefits elicited by the washing machine model related mainly to practical benefits, while the sofa model, in particular, offered personal benefits to consumers. It also seemed that the sofa and clothing CE models entailed more psychological sacrifices compared to the washing machine model. The results also indicate that when making a decision on renting or owning, the balance between the economic benefits and sacrifices is crucial. If buying is seen as economically favourable, it easily wins out over renting, since it is a more familiar way to act. With regards to some products, personal and emotional benefits tend to override other factors.

Keywords: Circular economy, customer value, services, value creation, innovation

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Original paper

Triggers for Modifying Dysfunctional Customer Behaviour

Wataru Uémoto

Vol.3, No.1, pp.9-17, 2018

ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional customer behaviour in service settings are known to create problems for company managers and to have a negative impact on service performance. Although some prior researches suggested some customer management tactics in service settings, researchers have paid little attention to how customers modify their dysfunctional behaviours. Consequently, validity of customer management tactics and possibility of other customers' contribution for modifying dysfunctional behaviour have not yet been revealed. This article describes the thematic analysis that reveals a wide variety of elements and triggers which affect the modification of dysfunctional customer behaviour. According to the research findings, two major elements (other customers and employees) are identified and interactions with unknown other customers particularly may have a strong impact on modifying dysfunctional customer behaviours. Furthermore, seven triggers for modifying dysfunctional customer behaviours were exploited: other customer's dysfunctional behaviour, other customer' s appropriate behaviour, negative reaction of other customer, advice from other customer, employee concession, employee notice, and employee fatigue. Results reveal the positive aspects of the negative phenomenon of dysfunctional customer behaviour in service settings and limited effectiveness of customer management tactics in service settings.

Keywords: Modification of dysfunctional customer behaviour, Customer management, Services marketing

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